Wildlife can be very beautiful in their natural setting, but when but when they get to close to home they can cause harm in many ways. Not only can they cause damage to your home or business, but there are many diseases to be aware of as well. This is another reason why it is important to call a professional when handling wildlife as some of these diseases can be harmful to humans. Here are the most common diseases that can be passed on to humans from wildlife.
- Zoonotic Disease
What is a Zoonotic Disease? Zoonosis: ( zoo-no-sis ) a disease of animals that may be transmitted to man under natural conditions.
- Bacterial Diseases: Brucellosis, Bubonic Plague, Leptospirosis, Psittacosis, Salmonellosis, Tetanus, and Tularemia
- Mycotic Disease: Aspergillosis, Histoplasmosis
- Viral Disease: Rabies
- Parasitic Disease: Baylisascaris Procyonis
- Protozoal Disease: Giardiasis, Toxoplasmosis,
- Tick-Borne Disease: Lyme Disease
Diseases most common in:
- Raccoons: Baylisascaris Procyonis, Edwardsiella Tarda, Rabies, Salmonellosis
- Skunks: Mycobacterium Bovis, Rabies
- Birds: Campylobacteriosis, Chlamydia Psittaci,, Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae, Newcastle, Disease Virus, Pasteurella Multocida, Histoplasma Capsulatum, Salmonellosis, Yersinia, and seudotuberculosis
- Bats: Duvenhage Virus, Lyssavirus, Histoplasma Capsulatum, Kasokero Virus, Salmonellosis, Rabies, Mokola Virus, Yuli Virus,
- Rodents: Hantavirus,Bayisascaris Procyonis, Bayisascaris
Procyon is a common roundworm of raccoons. It causes a recognized larva migrans of other wild animals that serve as intermediate hosts ( at least 90 species including rodents, birds, rabbits, fox, weasels, otters, and badgers ), usually leading to neurologic disease, and this parasite has also been identified as a zoonotic concern for humans.
Young raccoons and humans become infected by ingesting eggs containing larvae from soils contaminated with raccoon feces. Adult raccoons become infected by ingesting larvae imbedded in tissues of intermediate hosts.
Infection is very common in raccoons.
- – 51 – 82% seropositivity among raccoons tested in IL, IN, and WI.
- Infected raccoons can shed millions of eggs per day. Eggs embryonate and become infectious about 2-4 weeks later.
- The eggs are resistant in the environment. Disinfection requires boiling contaminated materials in a solution of 1 pound lye to 20 gallons water. In order to kill eggs in soil, it requires flaming the soil.
- Cats are pretty resistant to infection, but dogs can be a host and shed eggs in their feces.
- CNS has been documented in pet rabbits that were kept outdoors
Disease in humans:
- Infections in humans are often linked to pica behavior and, therefore, occur most commonly in children.
- Approximately 5 to7% of larvae invade the brain causing a great deal of tissue destruction.
- The size of the larvae , up to 2 mm in length, cause intense inflammation.
- Because damage can occur before the onset of clinical signs, treatment is of limited efficacy.